LPR, laryngopharyngeal reflux

Laryngopharyngeal Reflux aka Reflux Laryngitis for ENT trainees

The laryngeal inflammation due to gastroesophageal reflux disease is more appropriately known as Laryngopharyngeal Reflux or the LPR. The disease is highly prevalent in recent times. Scroll down for freely downloadable images and PDF on LPR from an exam point of view. Many questions have been asked from this topic in the theory exams. Here … Continue reading Laryngopharyngeal Reflux aka Reflux Laryngitis for ENT trainees

inferior retrotympanum

Retrotympanum and Round Window Region

Retrotympanum is the space in middle ear posterior to annulus of tympanic membrane. It comprises various recesses and structures lodged within the posterior wall (mastoid wall) of tympanic cavity. The inferior retrotympanum includes the round window region and is studied using endoscopic visualisation. With the advent of endoscopes we have understood middle ear anatomy in … Continue reading Retrotympanum and Round Window Region

mitomycin c mechanism of action

Mitomycin C in Otolaryngology

Mitomycin C (or Mutamycin) is an anti-cancer antibiotic that halts cell replication and results in eventual cell death. It cross-links complementary strands of DNA and inhibits DNA synthesis. It is used in cancers of stomach, pancreas, urothelial system, etc. Mitomycin C is used for its anti-inflammatory actions also. This property makes it more valuable in … Continue reading Mitomycin C in Otolaryngology

Amphotericin B lipid formulations, adverse effects, advantages, uses

Amphotericin B

Amphotericin B is an important drug in ENT practice. Therefore, it is oft repeated in DNB and MS theory exams. We have uploaded 3 images which cover all sub-topics under this drug. We have included a few excerpts from the images in this blog post. Readers please note that - AmB refers to Amphotericin B. … Continue reading Amphotericin B