Speech and Language Therapy

What is Speech Therapy? Speech therapy is the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of communication problems and speech disorders. It includes a variety of strategies like articulation therapy, language intervention activities, and, swallowing therapy. Speech and language pathologists, also known as speech therapists, give the therapy. Speech and Language Therapy Who needs speech therapy? There is … Continue reading Speech and Language Therapy

Nasal Polyps

Overview A nasal polyp is a grape-like non-cancerous growth of the mucus membrane of the nose. It occurs mainly in patients of chronic sinusitis and allergy. Polyps can occur in either nasal cavity at the region where the sinuses open into the nose. Small polyps do not cause much obstruction but large and multiple ones … Continue reading Nasal Polyps

LPR, laryngopharyngeal reflux

Laryngopharyngeal Reflux aka Reflux Laryngitis for ENT trainees

The laryngeal inflammation due to gastroesophageal reflux disease is more appropriately known as Laryngopharyngeal Reflux or the LPR. The disease is highly prevalent in recent times. Scroll down for freely downloadable images and PDF on LPR from an exam point of view. Many questions have been asked from this topic in the theory exams. Here … Continue reading Laryngopharyngeal Reflux aka Reflux Laryngitis for ENT trainees

air pollution causes sinus infection


The sinuses are hollow spaces in between the eyes, behind our cheekbones, and inside the forehead. They produce mucus to keep the nasal cavities moist and prevent dust particles from going into the lungs. They also help reduce the weight of the head. Sinus infections occur when drainage of sinuses are blocked. In the previous … Continue reading CAUSES OF SINUSITIS

inferior retrotympanum

Retrotympanum and Round Window Region

Retrotympanum is the space in middle ear posterior to annulus of tympanic membrane. It comprises various recesses and structures lodged within the posterior wall (mastoid wall) of tympanic cavity. The inferior retrotympanum includes the round window region and is studied using endoscopic visualisation. With the advent of endoscopes we have understood middle ear anatomy in … Continue reading Retrotympanum and Round Window Region

mitomycin c mechanism of action

Mitomycin C in Otolaryngology

Mitomycin C (or Mutamycin) is an anti-cancer antibiotic that halts cell replication and results in eventual cell death. It cross-links complementary strands of DNA and inhibits DNA synthesis. It is used in cancers of stomach, pancreas, urothelial system, etc. Mitomycin C is used for its anti-inflammatory actions also. This property makes it more valuable in … Continue reading Mitomycin C in Otolaryngology

vertigo treatment depends on cause

Vertigo Treatment

In our previous post we saw what causes vertigo and the different types of vertigo. In the current post we shall delve into its treatment. Firstly, we must understand that vertigo is only a symptom and it is the underlying disorder that needs to be treated. So, it is important to diagnose it before you … Continue reading Vertigo Treatment

spinning of surroundings in vertigo

Vertigo – Causes and Types

Vertigo or dizziness is the feeling of imbalance. When you have vertigo you feel that either you or the surroundings around you are spinning. It is a symptom, of a variety of conditions, rather than a disease. Vertigo causes can be inside the inner ear, brain or nerve pathway. The problem can occur at any … Continue reading Vertigo – Causes and Types

Amphotericin B lipid formulations, adverse effects, advantages, uses

Amphotericin B

Amphotericin B is an important drug in ENT practice. Therefore, it is oft repeated in DNB and MS theory exams. We have uploaded 3 images which cover all sub-topics under this drug. We have included a few excerpts from the images in this blog post. Readers please note that - AmB refers to Amphotericin B. … Continue reading Amphotericin B

Dandelion - Allergic Rhinitis

Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever)

Allergic rhinitis refers to a number of symptoms occurring in the nose due to allergy. Hay fever, as it is commonly known, occurs when our body is sensitive to any particle in air. Pollen is the most common particle causing allergy. The symptoms are similar to cold with sneezing, runny nose and watering of eyes, … Continue reading Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever)