Speech and Language Therapy

What is Speech Therapy? Speech therapy is the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of communication problems and speech disorders. It includes a variety of strategies like articulation therapy, language intervention activities, and, swallowing therapy. Speech and language pathologists, also known as speech therapists, give the therapy. Speech and Language Therapy Who needs speech therapy? There is … Continue reading Speech and Language Therapy

Nasal Polyps

Overview A nasal polyp is a grape-like non-cancerous growth of the mucus membrane of the nose. It occurs mainly in patients of chronic sinusitis and allergy. Polyps can occur in either nasal cavity at the region where the sinuses open into the nose. Small polyps do not cause much obstruction but large and multiple ones … Continue reading Nasal Polyps

wearing masks to prevent droplet infection

Sinusitis – Prevention and Home Remedies

In our previous posts, we discussed the causes, types, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of sinus infections. In the current post, we’ll see in detail the home remedies for sinus infection. We shall also see how to prevent sinus infections. The home remedies include simple measures that you can perform at home. Let us see what … Continue reading Sinusitis – Prevention and Home Remedies

LPR, laryngopharyngeal reflux

Laryngopharyngeal Reflux aka Reflux Laryngitis for ENT trainees

The laryngeal inflammation due to gastroesophageal reflux disease is more appropriately known as Laryngopharyngeal Reflux or the LPR. The disease is highly prevalent in recent times. Scroll down for freely downloadable images and PDF on LPR from an exam point of view. Many questions have been asked from this topic in the theory exams. Here … Continue reading Laryngopharyngeal Reflux aka Reflux Laryngitis for ENT trainees

sinus infection treatment - nasal sprays

Diagnosis and Treatment of Sinusitis

We discussed the causes, types, symptoms, and risk factors of sinusitis in the previous posts. In this, we shall see the diagnosis and treatment of sinus infection. Most of the cases present to an Ear, Nose, and Throat specialist and a few may go to an infectious disease specialist or the local physician. The diagnosis involves … Continue reading Diagnosis and Treatment of Sinusitis

air pollution causes sinus infection


The sinuses are hollow spaces in between the eyes, behind our cheekbones, and inside the forehead. They produce mucus to keep the nasal cavities moist and prevent dust particles from going into the lungs. They also help reduce the weight of the head. Sinus infections occur when drainage of sinuses are blocked. In the previous … Continue reading CAUSES OF SINUSITIS

inferior retrotympanum

Retrotympanum and Round Window Region

Retrotympanum is the space in middle ear posterior to annulus of tympanic membrane. It comprises various recesses and structures lodged within the posterior wall (mastoid wall) of tympanic cavity. The inferior retrotympanum includes the round window region and is studied using endoscopic visualisation. With the advent of endoscopes we have understood middle ear anatomy in … Continue reading Retrotympanum and Round Window Region

sinus infection symptom - pressure behind eyes

SINUSITIS – What is it? What are the symptoms?

Sinus infection or sinusitis is the inflammation of sinuses. Sinuses are empty spaces inside our head and help to reduce its weight. They are lined by a mucus membrane and are usually filled with air. Symptoms due to sinus infection include nose block, nasal discharge, facial pressure, reduced sense of smell, tiredness, fatigue, pain behind … Continue reading SINUSITIS – What is it? What are the symptoms?

mitomycin c mechanism of action

Mitomycin C in Otolaryngology

Mitomycin C (or Mutamycin) is an anti-cancer antibiotic that halts cell replication and results in eventual cell death. It cross-links complementary strands of DNA and inhibits DNA synthesis. It is used in cancers of stomach, pancreas, urothelial system, etc. Mitomycin C is used for its anti-inflammatory actions also. This property makes it more valuable in … Continue reading Mitomycin C in Otolaryngology

vertigo treatment depends on cause

Vertigo Treatment

In our previous post we saw what causes vertigo and the different types of vertigo. In the current post we shall delve into its treatment. Firstly, we must understand that vertigo is only a symptom and it is the underlying disorder that needs to be treated. So, it is important to diagnose it before you … Continue reading Vertigo Treatment